Global Surface Temperature (1880-1920 baseline)

This global temperature chart is updated at Columbia University by Dr. Makiko Sato.
Data is based on GISTEMP analysis (mostly NOAA data sources) as described by Hansen, Ruedy, Sato & Lo (2010).
The 1880-1920 average is used as best available base for pre-industrial global average temperatures.
See "A better graph" by Hansen and Sato (2016) for background info.


September Global Temperature Change*

Rankings: September 1880 - September 2016
Comparisons with 20th Century Global Average Surface Temperature
(Temperatures are not compared with a pre-industrial baseline)



Change in

Warmest September
+0.93°C  +1.67°F
2nd Warmest September
+0.92°C  +1.60°F
Coolest September
-0.49°C   -0.88°F
    Data retrieved:
Nov. 9, 2016

*Surface temperature changes relative to 20th Century global average (1901 - 2000)
Source data  NOAA-NCEI State of the Climate: Global Analysis  [Web + data download]


NOAA/NCDC: The combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces for September 2016 was the second highest for September in the 137-year record, 0.04°C (0.07°F) cooler than the record warmth of 2015. A few months after the end of one of the strongest El Niños in at least the past half century, this month effectively snapped the 16-month streak of record warm monthly global temperatures. [NOAA global analysis for July 2016 accessed November 9, 2016].


"The science is sobering—the global temperature in 2012 was among the hottest since records began in 1880. Make no mistake: without concerted action, the very future of our planet is in peril."

~ Christine Lagarde, Managing Director
International Monetary Fund


NOAA's global analysis for 2015 lists 2015 as the warmest year on record since 1880 at 0.90°C above the 20th Century average.  The year 2014 is the second warmest at 0.74°C above the average.  The year 2013 was the fourth warmest at 0.66°C above the average.  [NOAA global analysis for 2015 accessed January 20, 2016].


"Globally-averaged temperatures in 2015 shattered the previous mark set in 2014 by 0.23 degrees Fahrenheit (0.13 Celsius). Only once before, in 1998, has the new record been greater than the old record by this much."

~ NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies [NASA post of January 20, 2016]


Before the end of 2015, scientists projected that average global temperature increase for 2015 will exceed 1°C above pre-industrial levels.  The years 1850-1990 are used as the pre-industrial baseline by the MET Office and Climate Research Unit at the University of East Anglia in the UK.  The MET Office released this statement in November 2015:


"This year marks an important first but that doesn't necessarily mean every year from now on will be a degree or more above pre-industrial levels, as natural variability will still play a role in determining the temperature in any given year.  As the world continues to warm in the coming decades, however, we will see more and more years passing the 1 degree marker - eventually it will become the norm."

~ Peter Stott
Head of Climate Monitoring and Attribution (MET Office)


>> Read More





NOAA NCEI State of the Climate: Global Analysis (Monthly)

NOAA NCEI State of the Climate: Global Analysis (Annual)

SkS  TOOL | Make your own global temperature chart

SkS  Tracking the 2°C Limit | February 2016




MET Office '15  Global temperatures to reach 1°C for first time

MET Office  2015 global temperature forecast 

NY Times  2015 likely to be hottest year ever recorded

NSIDC '15  Record warmth in Antarctica

CO2.Earth  Projections for Year 2100

CO2.EarthTemperature guardrail targets

Climate Central Rising global temperatures and CO2

NCAR-UCAR  How much has global temperature risen in last 100 years? 

Columbia U   Global Temperature 

The Royal Society  Four degrees and beyond