CO2 Acceleration

The CO2 Trend | Rocket Snail Image

"Today’s rate of increase is more than 100 times faster than the increase that occurred when the last ice age ended."

~ NOAA Media Release (2013)
~ Scripps (SIO UCSD) News Release (2013)

 

Atmospheric CO2 is rising at an unprecedented rates.  Consequences are profound for earth's temperatures, climates, ecosystems and species, both on land and in the oceans.  To see whether the speeding rise of atmospheric CO2 is slowing or speeding up, take a look at the bend in the iconic Keeling Curve.  Or, is the rate of change speeding up or slowing down?  The answer can be seen in the direction of the bend in the Keeling Curve.  And it can be seen in the data that produces the Keeling Curve.

 

Atmospheric CO2 Growth Rates

Decadal Average Annual Growth Rates
Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO)
1960 - 2019

 

Decade

Atmospheric CO2

Growth Rate

2010 - 2019   

    2.40 ppm per year   

2000 - 2009

 1.97 ppm per year

 1990 - 1999

 1.50 ppm per year

 1980 - 1989

 1.61 ppm per year

 1970 - 1979

 1.28 ppm per year

 1960 - 1969

0.85 ppm per year

ppm = parts per million

Decadal changes calculated by CO2.Earth
with NOAA-ESRL annual mean CO2 concentrations at Mauna Loa.

 


Annual CO2 Growth Rates

 

NOAA-ESRL charts the annual growth rate for atmospheric CO2 at Mauna Loa.  The table below shows the average annual increase (blue bars) and the average for each decade (black horizontal bars). 

Annual mean growth rate of CO2 at Mauna Loa source graphic  NOAA-ESRL [.png + web]

 

Links

 

NOAA-ESRL  Annual mean CO2 growth rate at Mauna Loa [.txt data]

NOAA-ESRL  Annual mean global CO2 growth rate--marine surfaces [.txt data]

 

 


Keeling Curve

 

Scripps UCSD maintain the iconic Keeling Curve named after Charles David Keeling, the scientist who created an instrument to make high-precision measurements of the concentration of carbon dioxide in air.  The accelerating increases shown in the data can be seen in the Keeling Curve graph as a bend upward to the left.

Keeling Curve | Full MLO CO2 Record

 

Links

 

Scripps CO2 Program  The early Keeling Curve

Scripps CO2 Program  Keeling Curve lessons

Keeling Curve 2015  Is the rate of CO2 growth slowing or speeding up?

Keeling Curve 2015  American Chemical Society to honor Keeling Curve

Keeling Curve 2015  What does this number mean?

Scripps CO2 Program  Mauna Loa graphics gallery

 

Related

 

CO2.Earth  1958: Keeling discovers background CO2

Climate Central 2013  Keeling Curve

 

 

Inter-related Trends

 

Scripps O2 Program  Scripps O2 global oxygen measurements

Scripps CO2 Program  Mauna Loa CO2 & Fossil Fuel Trend (graphic)

 

Bend the Keeling Curve

 

U of Cal. 2015  Bending curve on climate change for California and the world

 

 


Related

 

The Conversation  |  Existential risks to our planetary life-support systems (2013)

 

CO2 Data

 

CO2.Earth  Daily CO2 Data

CO2.Earth  Weekly CO2 Data

CO2.Earth  Monthly CO2 Data

CO2.Earth  Yearly CO2 Data

CO2.Earth  Global Temperature

CO2.Earth  Global Carbon Emissions

 

 

Daily CO2

co2 earth daily co2 banner gary braasch image

  

 

Latest

 

Daily CO2 

 

A Bellweather Indicator for Planetary Environmental Stability, Global Economic Security & Inter-Generational Sustainability

 

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1 Year Change loading... ppm (loading...)

 

Last CO2 Earth update: loading... on loading..., Hawaii local time (UTC -10)

This table presents the most up-to-date, daily average reading for atmospheric CO2 on the planet.  Units = parts per million (ppm).  Measurement location = Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. Source = NOAA-ESRL.  See the tabs below for more info and CO2 readings.

 

 

Daily CO2 Is The Number to Watch

It takes just seconds a day to track the leading indicator for the
alignment of human activities with planetary life support systems.

 


Learn More About Atmospheric CO2 Readings & Stabilization

  • CO2 Records  Track the all-time highs reached by atmospheric CO2 and compare them with the latest CO2 levels.
  • CO2 Q&As  Questions and answers on all thing CO2:  From measurements and tracking to targets and solutions.
  • CO2 Broadcasts  Resource hub for broadcasters, publishers, bloggers and others who are share the CO2 signal with people in their worlds. 

 

 

NOTE:
The Daily CO2 page is now a beta web app.  We are making adjustments as needed to ensure that daily CO2 readings are kept up-to-date and accurate. This work is self-funded and brought to you by a small number of volunteers who are promoting widespread sharing and reporting of CO2 levels to spur conversations and innovations that ramp up efforts to stabilize GHGs in the atmospher end end the global climate crisis.  

 

 

CO2 measurements are made by two independent CO2 monitoring programs (NOAA and Scripps) at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii, about 3400 metres above sea level.  Explore the tabs below where you will see daily CO2 charts and related links. 

 

 


NOAA Daily CO2

Recent Daily Average CO2 at Mauna Loa

(last 31 days)

 NOAA Daily & Hourly CO2

 Source Graphic:   NOAA Daily Average MLO CO2

 

 

 

 

More NOAA CO2:  Daily / Weekly / Monthly 

NOAA Daily & Weekly CO2

 Source Graphic:   NOAA Weekly Mauna Loa Web Page

 The NOAA CO2 averages use colour codes as follows:

  • daily CO2 =  black dots
  • weekly CO2 =  red lines (Sunday to Saturday)  
  • monthly CO2 =  blue lines.

 

Related Links

 

CO2 Earth  Weekly CO2

 


Scripps Hourly & Daily CO2

Scripps Daily CO2

One Week   |   One Month   |   One Year   |   Two Years   |   Record Since 1958   |   Since 1700   |   800,000 Years

Source Graphics: Scripps Keeling Curve Website

Scripps reports daily averages based on Mauna Loa local time.

 

The Scripps graph shows hourly CO2 averages with small grey dots, and daily averages with larger black dots.

 

Related Links

 

Scripps UCSD  Keeling Curve website

Twitter  @Keeling_curve

Scripps CO2 Program  MLO Datasets

 

 


Daily Global CO2Trend

 

NOAA's Daily Global CO2 chart averages seasonally-adjusted data from four core observatories at different latitudes from the South Pole to Alaska.  Recent values are estimates, not current observations.  NOAA Daily Global Seasonally Adjusted CO2 Graph

 Source Graphic:   NOAA Global CO2 Trend webpage

NOAA states that lines in the graphic "are a very good estimate of the global average levels of CO2."  

NOAA |  Estimated CO2 Trend (seasonally adjusted) daily values

NOAA | Curve Fitting Methods Applied to Time Series in NOAA/ESRL/GMD

 

 

Why does the graph show us? 

 

NOAA's Daily Global CO2 table shows us atmospheric CO2 phenomena that Charles David Keeling discovered with the high-precesion CO2 measuring instruments and programs he created in the 1950s.  These phenomna include:

  • seasonal fluctuations of CO2 levels in well-mixed background air that is free of local influence such as plant respiration and industry
  • large difference in seasonable fluctuations betwen the South Pole (least fluctuation) to near the North Pole (highest fluctuation) which shows that seasonal fluctuations are driven mainly by vegetation cycles in the Northern Hemisphere where most land is located.
  • year-over-year increases in carbon dioxide--increases that have continued and accelerated since Keeling's discovery and which scientists attribute primarily to emissions caused by human activities (roughly 90% fossil fuel combustion and most of the remainder due to land use changes)

 

 

Why does CO2 Earth focus on Mauna Loa CO2 readings?

 

Maybe you are wondering why CO2 Earth features daily readings from the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) alone and not a seasonally adjusted estimate?  If you are, there are many  reasons. 

First, CO2 readings from Mauna Loa are direct observations of the Earth system.  They are precise measurements of the air made at one location in the Earth's atmosphere.  They are not projections, estimates or averages that use advanced mathematics to generate a daily number.  CO2 Earth was created to make it easy for non-scientists to see changes of consequence to the planet as they happen.  Whether the CO2 problem is getting worse or getting resolved, people deserve to have access to objective informaiton without filters and delays.  For this reason, CO2 Earth use data from direct observations when it reports the latest available CO2 levels.  

This brings us to another reason.   Unlike CO2 readings from other observing stations in the world, CO2 readings from Mauna Loa are practically real time.  

A third reason relates to reliability.  CO2 readings are available from not one, but two scientific institutions: NOAA ESRL (Global Monitoring Division) and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UCSD (Scripps CO2 Program).  Each institution  measures CO2 readings with separate instruments and reports their readings indepndently of the other.  Scripps started continuous measurements at Mauna Loa in 1958.  The NOAA-ESRL program started in 1974.  

Fourth, the Mauna Loa CO2 record is the the world's longest, continuous record of observations using high precision instruments.  Observations today can be compared against observations at the same location over a period of time that is longer than any other.   

Fifth, year-over-year comparisons of Mauna Loa CO2 gives people a signal of planetary significance.  It's true that Mauna Loa is just a spot on the map.  But the year-over-year trend in the Mauna Loa CO2 is essentially the same as the trends at other observing stations. “COis rising everywhere, and at about the same rate” (Volk, 2008, pp. 39-41).  Further, the CO2 data presents a trend that is so clear that statistical analysis is not needed to detect it (Tans & Bolin, 2006, p. 329).

And then there is the Mauna Loa Observatory and its remote location in the middle of the largest and deepest ocean on the planet.  It is 3,400 metres above sea level on a slope about 3/4 of a kilometre metres below the top of the tallest mountain on Earth. (McGee, 2017, p. 99)  NOAA-ESRL states that "the undisturbed air, remote location, and minimal influences of vegetation and human activity at MLO are ideal for monitoring constituents in the atmosphere that can cause climate change (NOAA-ESRL, GMD, 2020)." 

 

 

 


More Data

 

Mauna Loa CO2

 

CO2.Earth  Daily CO2 Data

CO2.Earth  Weekly CO2 Data

CO2.Earth  Monthly CO2 Data

CO2.Earth  Yearly CO2 Data

CO2.Earth  CO2 Trend

  

Comments & Corrections

 

If you notice an issue with information on this page, please This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. so we can fix it or explain it. 

 

 

Weekly CO2

Weekly means for atmospheric CO2 originate from the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) and its Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii.

 

Weekly CO2

  Mauna Loa Observatory | NOAA-ESRL

Period

Week

Atmospheric CO2

Last Week

February 16 - 22, 2020

414.01 ppm

1 Year Ago

February 16 - 22, 2019

411.22 ppm

10 Years Ago

February 16 - 222010

390.45 ppm

  Data Updated:  February 23, 2020
  NOAA dataset: Web + .txt

weekly mean concentrations  |  ppm = parts per million

 

NOAA-ESRL and Scripps CO2 provide continually-updated graphics with daily and weekly data points plotted over multiple time periods.  Use the tabs below to view these graphics as well as links to the NOAA and Scripps websites.

Recent data is preliminary.  NOAA-ESRL is the only weekly dataset with values updated in real time.  Scripps CO2 posts a weekly CO2 dataset that is updated less frequently.

 


NOAA Daily & Weekly CO2

 

This NOAA graphic shows daily CO2 averages with black dots, weekly CO2 averages with red lines (Sunday to Saturday) and monthly CO2 averages with blue lines.

NOAA Daily & Weekly CO2

 Source Graphic:   NOAA Weekly Mauna Loa Weekly CO2 Page

 NOAA reports daily averages based on local time in Boulder, Colorado.

 

 

Related

 

NOAA-ESRL  Weekly CO2 Dataset with Historical Comparisons (since May 1974) [page

 

 


Scripps Weekly CO2

 

This Scripps graphic shows hourly CO2 averages with small grey dots, and daily averages with larger black dots.

Scripps Daily CO2

 One Week   |   One Month   |   One Year   |   Two Years   |   Record Since 1958   |   Since 1700   |   800,000 Years

Source Graphics: Scripps Keeling Curve Website

Scripps reports daily averages based on Mauna Loa local time.

 

Related

 

Scripps CO2 Program  Weekly CO2 Dataset (since 1958) [page]

 

 


MORE

 

Related Data

 

CO2.Earth  Daily CO2 Data

CO2.Earth  Monthly CO2 Data

CO2.Earth  Yearly CO2 Data

CO2.Earth  CO2 Trend

 

About the Data

 

NOAA  How scientists measure background CO2 levels on Mauna Loa

 

Data Updates

 

CO2.Earth re-posts source data manually.  If you notice an error on our part, a nudge is welcome. 

 

CO2.Earth  Nudge Us

 

 

Monthly CO2

 Mauna Loa CO2

January 2020

 

NOAA-ESRL

SCRIPPS UCSD

Jan. 2020
413.40 ppm 413.37 ppm
Jan. 2019 410.83 ppm 410.92 ppm
Jan. 2018 407.96 ppm 408.05 ppm
Last Update: Feb. 5, 2020
Feb. 6, 2020
View Data: NOAA
Scripps

Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO)  |  Atmospheric CO2
monthly mean concentrations  |  ppm = parts per million
 

Two independent records of CO2 changes are maintained in parallel at Mauna Loa.   A graph showing the two records together is available at the bottom of the Scripps CO2 Program website

Use the tabs below to view the latest monthly CO2 data, charts and related links.

 


NOAA Monthly Data

 

NOAA Monthly CO2 Data

Atmospheric CO2  |  March 1958 to Present  |  Mauna Loa Observatory

NOAA-ESRL update: September 5, 2018

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
2018 407.98 408.35 409.46 410.26 411.24 410.79 408.71 406.99 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2017 406.13 406.42 407.18 409.00 409.65 408.84 407.07 405.07 403.38 403.64 405.14 406.82
2016 402.52 404.04 404.83 407.42 407.70 406.81 404.39 402.25 401.03 401.57 403.53 404.42
2015 399.98 400.28 401.54 403.28 403.96 402.80 401.31 398.93 397.63 398.29 400.16 401.85
2014 397.85 398.01 399.77 401.38 401.78 401.25 399.10 397.03 395.38 396.03 397.28 398.91
2013 395.55 396.80 397.43 398.41 399.78 398.61 397.32 395.20 393.45 393.70 395.16 396.84
2012 393.12 393.86 394.40 396.18 396.74 395.71 394.36 392.39 391.11 391.05 392.98 394.34
2011 391.33 391.86 392.60 393.25 394.19 393.73 392.51 390.13 389.08 389.00 390.28 391.86
2010 388.71 390.20 391.17 392.46 393.00 392.15 390.20 388.35 386.85 387.24 388.67 389.79
2009 386.94 387.48 388.82 389.55 390.14 389.48 388.03 386.11 384.74 384.43 386.02 387.42
2008 385.52 385.82 386.03 387.21 388.54 387.76 386.36 384.09 383.18 382.99 384.19 385.56
2007 382.89 383.90 384.58 386.50 386.56 386.10 384.50 381.99 380.96 381.12 382.45 383.95
2006 381.38 382.19 382.67 384.61 385.03 384.05 382.46 380.41 378.85 379.13 380.15 381.82
2005 378.46 379.73 380.77 382.29 382.45 382.21 380.74 378.74 376.70 377.00 378.35 380.11
2004 377.00 377.87 378.88 380.35 380.62 379.69 377.47 376.01 374.25 374.46 376.16 377.51
2003 374.88 375.64 376.45 377.73 378.60 378.28 376.70 374.38 373.17 373.14 374.66 375.99
2002 372.53 373.20 374.12 375.02 375.76 375.52 374.01 371.85 370.75 370.55 372.25 373.79
2001 370.59 371.51 372.43 373.37 373.85 373.21 371.51 369.61 368.18 368.45 369.76 371.24
2000 369.29 369.54 370.60 371.82 371.58 371.70 369.86 368.13 367.00 367.03 368.37 369.67
1999 368.18 369.07 369.68 370.99 370.96 370.30 369.45 366.90 364.81 365.37 366.72 368.10
1998 365.26 365.98 367.24 368.66 369.42 368.99 367.82 365.95 364.02 364.40 365.52 367.13
1997 363.09 364.03 364.51 366.35 366.64 365.59 364.31 362.25 360.29 360.82 362.49 364.38
1996 362.07 363.24 364.17 364.57 365.13 364.92 363.55 361.38 359.54 359.58 360.89 362.24
1995 359.92 360.86 361.83 363.30 363.69 363.19 361.64 359.12 358.17 357.99 359.45 360.68
1994 358.24 358.92 359.99 361.23 361.65 360.81 359.38 357.46 355.73 356.07 357.53 358.98
1993 357.00 357.31 358.47 359.27 360.19 359.52 357.33 355.64 354.03 354.12 355.41 356.91
1992 356.25 357.11 357.86 359.09 359.59 359.33 357.01 354.94 352.96 353.32 354.32 355.57
1991 354.84 355.73 357.23 358.66 359.13 358.13 356.19 353.85 352.25 352.35 353.81 355.12
1990 353.80 355.04 355.73 356.32 357.32 356.34 354.84 353.01 351.31 351.62 353.07 354.33
1989 352.91 353.27 353.96 355.64 355.86 355.37 353.99 351.81 350.05 350.25 351.49 352.85
1988 350.39 351.64 352.41 353.69 354.21 353.72 352.69 350.40 348.92 349.13 350.20 351.41
1987 348.52 348.73 349.73 351.31 352.09 351.53 350.11 348.08 346.52 346.59 347.96 349.16
1986 346.56 347.28 348.01 349.77 350.38 349.93 348.16 346.08 345.22 344.51 345.93 347.22
1985 345.21 346.16 347.74 348.34 349.06 348.38 346.72 345.02 343.27 343.13 344.49 345.88
1984 344.10 344.79 345.52 346.84 347.63 346.97 345.53 343.55 341.40 341.67 343.10 344.70
1983 341.68 342.90 343.33 345.25 346.03 345.63 344.19 342.27 340.35 340.38 341.59 343.05
1982 340.96 341.73 342.81 343.97 344.63 343.79 342.32 340.09 338.28 338.29 339.60 340.90
1981 339.29 340.55 341.61 342.53 343.03 342.54 340.78 338.44 336.95 337.08 338.58 339.88
1980 337.90 338.34 340.01 340.93 341.48 341.33 339.40 337.70 336.19 336.15 337.27 338.32
1979 336.14 336.69 338.27 338.95 339.21 339.26 337.54 335.75 333.98 334.19 335.31 336.81
1978 334.95 335.25 336.66 337.69 338.03 338.01 336.41 334.41 332.37 332.41 333.75 334.90
1977 332.66 333.13 334.95 336.13 336.93 336.17 334.88 332.56 331.29 331.27 332.41 333.60
1976 331.59 332.75 333.52 334.64 334.77 334.00 333.06 330.68 328.95 328.75 330.15 331.62
1975 330.73 331.46 331.90 333.17 333.94 333.45 331.98 329.95 328.50 328.35 329.37 330.59
1974 329.35 330.71 331.48 332.65 333.20 332.16 331.07 329.12 327.32 327.28 328.30 329.58
1973 328.54 329.56 330.30 331.50 332.48 332.07 330.87 329.31 327.51 327.18 328.16 328.64
1972 326.77 327.63 327.75 329.72 330.07 329.09 328.05 326.32 324.93 325.06 326.50 327.55
1971 326.17 326.68 327.18 327.78 328.92 328.57 327.34 325.46 323.36 323.57 324.80 326.01
1970 325.03 325.99 326.87 328.13 328.07 327.66 326.35 324.69 323.10 323.16 323.98 325.13
1969 324.00 324.42 325.64 326.66 327.34 326.76 325.88 323.67 322.38 321.78 322.85 324.11
1968 322.57 323.15 323.89 325.02 325.57 325.36 324.14 322.03 320.41 320.25 321.31 322.84
1967 322.07 322.50 323.04 324.42 325.00 324.09 322.55 320.92 319.31 319.31 320.72 321.96
1966 320.62 321.59 322.39 323.87 324.01 323.75 322.39 320.37 318.64 318.10 319.79 321.08
1965 319.44 320.44 320.89 322.13 322.16 321.87 321.39 318.81 317.81 317.30 318.87 319.42
1964 319.57 320.07 320.73 321.77 322.25 321.89 320.44 318.70 316.70 316.79 317.79 318.71
1963 318.74 319.08 319.86 321.39 322.25 321.47 319.74 317.77 316.21 315.99 317.12 318.31
1962 317.94 318.56 319.68 320.63 321.01 320.55 319.58 317.40 316.26 315.42 316.69 317.69
1961 316.93 317.70 318.54 319.48 320.58 319.77 318.57 316.79 314.80 315.38 316.10 317.01
1960 316.43 316.97 317.58 319.02 320.03 319.59 318.18 315.91 314.16 313.83 315.00 316.19
1959 315.62 316.38 316.71 317.72 318.29 318.15 316.54 314.80 313.84 313.26 314.80 315.58
1958 315.71 317.45 317.50 317.10 315.86 314.93 313.20 312.66 313.33 314.67

units = parts per million (ppm)

Scripps data: 1958 - 1974  |  NOAA data: 1974 - Present
Source Dataset  NOAA-ESRL Global Monitoring [Web + .txt]

Table produced by CO2.Earth

 


Scripps Monthly Data

 

 Scripps Monthly CO2 Data

Atmospheric CO2  |  March 1958 to Present  |  Mauna Loa Observatory

Scripps UCSD Update: November 10, 2017

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
2017 406.07 406.64 407.06  408.95 409.91  409.12  407.20 405.24  403.27  403.64    
2016 402.65 404.16 404.86 407.57 407.65 407.00 404.50 402.24 401.01 401.50 403.64 404.55
2015 399.85 400.31 401.51 403.45 404.11 402.88 401.60 399.00 397.50 398.28 400.24 401.89
2014 397.93 398.10 399.47 401.33 401.88 401.31 399.07 397.21 395.40 395.65 397.22 398.79
2013 395.61 396.85 397.26 398.35 399.98 398.87 397.37 395.41 393.39 393.70 395.19 396.82
2012 393.07 393.35 394.36 396.43 396.87 395.88 394.52 392.54 391.13 391.01 392.95 394.34
2011 391.30 391.92 392.45 393.37 394.28 393.69 392.60 390.21 389.00 388.93 390.24 391.80
2010 388.55 390.07 391.01 392.38 393.22 392.24 390.33 388.52 386.84 387.16 388.67 389.81
2009 386.65 387.12 388.51 389.57 390.16 389.62 388.07 386.08 384.65 384.33 386.05 387.49
2008 385.07 385.84 385.83 386.77 388.51 388.05 386.25 384.08 383.09 382.78 384.01 385.11
2007 382.58 383.71 384.34 386.23 386.41 385.87 384.45 381.84 380.86 380.86 382.35 383.61
2006 381.37 382.02 382.56 384.37 384.92 384.03 382.28 380.48 378.81 379.06 380.14 381.66
2005 378.34 379.61 380.17 382.05 382.24 382.08 380.67 378.67 376.42 376.80 378.31 379.96
2004 376.79 377.36 378.39 380.50 380.61 379.55 377.76 375.84 374.05 374.22 375.84 377.44
2003 374.68 375.62 376.11 377.65 378.35 378.13 376.61 374.48 372.98 373.00 374.34 375.69
2002 372.44 373.08 373.52 374.86 375.55 375.40 374.02 371.48 370.70 370.25 372.08 373.78
2001 370.28 371.50 372.12 372.87 374.02 373.31 371.62 369.55 367.96 368.10 369.68 371.24
2000 369.14 369.46 370.51 371.66 371.83 371.69 370.12 368.12 366.62 366.73 368.29 369.53
1999 368.15 368.87 369.59 371.14 371.00 370.35 369.27 366.93 364.64 365.13 366.68 368.01
1998 365.33 366.15 367.31 368.61 369.30 368.88 367.64 365.77 363.90 364.24 365.46 366.97
1997 363.18 363.99 364.56 366.36 366.80 365.63 364.47 362.50 360.19 360.77 362.43 364.28
1996 362.05 363.24 364.02 364.72 365.41 364.97 363.65 361.48 359.45 359.61 360.76 362.33
1995 359.97 361.00 361.64 363.45 363.80 363.26 361.90 359.45 358.05 357.76 359.56 360.70
1994 358.37 358.91 359.97 361.27 361.69 360.94 359.55 357.48 355.84 356.00 357.58 359.04
1993 356.70 357.16 358.38 359.46 360.28 359.60 357.57 355.52 353.69 353.99 355.33 356.80
1992 355.99 356.72 357.81 359.15 359.66 359.25 357.02 355.00 353.01 353.31 354.16 355.40
1991 354.72 355.75 357.16 358.60 359.34 358.24 356.17 354.02 352.15 352.21 353.75 354.99
1990 353.66 354.70 355.38 356.20 357.16 356.23 354.81 352.91 350.96 351.18 352.83 354.21
1989 352.76 353.07 353.68 355.42 355.67 355.12 353.90 351.67 349.80 349.99 351.29 352.52
1988 350.43 351.73 352.22 353.59 354.22 353.79 352.38 350.43 348.73 348.88 350.07 351.34
1987 348.02 348.47 349.41 350.99 351.85 351.26 349.51 348.10 346.45 346.36 347.81 348.96
1986 346.30 346.95 347.85 349.55 350.21 349.55 347.94 345.90 344.85 344.17 345.66 346.90
1985 344.97 345.99 347.43 348.35 348.93 348.25 346.56 344.68 343.09 342.80 344.24 345.56
1984 343.70 344.50 345.28 347.07 347.43 346.80 345.39 343.28 341.07 341.35 342.98 344.22
1983 341.38 342.52 343.10 344.94 345.76 345.32 343.98 342.38 339.87 339.99 341.15 342.99
1982 340.75 341.61 342.70 343.57 344.14 343.35 342.06 339.81 337.98 337.86 339.26 340.49
1981 339.24 340.48 341.38 342.51 342.91 342.25 340.49 338.43 336.69 336.86 338.36 339.61
1980 338.01 338.36 340.07 340.77 341.47 341.17 339.56 337.60 335.88 336.02 337.10 338.21
1979 336.23 336.76 337.96 338.89 339.47 339.29 337.73 336.08 333.92 333.86 335.29 336.73
1978 334.97 335.38 336.64 337.76 338.01 337.89 336.54 334.68 332.76 332.55 333.92 334.95
1977 332.93 333.42 334.70 336.07 336.75 336.27 334.92 332.75 331.59 331.16 332.40 333.85
1976 331.75 332.56 333.50 334.58 334.88 334.34 333.05 330.94 329.30 328.94 330.31 331.68
1975 330.40 331.40 332.04 333.31 333.97 333.60 331.90 330.06 328.56 328.34 329.49 330.76
1974 329.35 330.71 331.48 332.65 333.09 332.25 331.18 329.39 327.43 327.37 328.46 329.57
1973 328.55 329.56 330.30 331.50 332.48 332.07 330.87 329.31 327.51 327.18 328.16 328.64
1972 326.77 327.63 327.75 329.73 330.07 329.09 328.04 326.32 324.84 325.20 326.50 327.55
1971 326.17 326.68 327.17 327.79 328.92 328.57 327.36 325.43 323.36 323.57 324.80 326.01
1970 325.06 325.98 326.93 328.14 328.08 327.67 326.34 324.69 323.10 323.07 324.01 325.13
1969 324.00 324.42 325.63 326.66 327.38 326.70 325.88 323.66 322.38 321.78 322.85 324.12
1968 322.57 323.14 323.89 325.02 325.57 325.36 324.14 322.11 320.33 320.25 321.32 322.89
1967 322.32 322.50 323.04 324.42 325.00 324.09 322.55 320.92 319.25 319.39 320.72 321.96
1966 320.62 321.59 322.39 323.70 324.08 323.75 322.39 320.36 318.64 318.10 319.79 321.03
1965 319.44 320.44 320.89 322.14 322.16 321.87 321.21 318.87 317.82 317.30 318.87 319.42
1964 319.57 319.98 320.75 321.84 322.26 321.89 320.44 318.69 316.71 316.87 317.68 318.71
1963 318.74 319.07 319.86 321.39 322.25 321.48 319.74 317.77 316.21 315.99 317.06 318.35
1962 317.94 318.55 319.68 320.57 321.01 320.62 319.61 317.40 316.25 315.42 316.69 317.70
1961 316.90 317.70 318.54 319.48 320.58 319.77 318.57 316.79 314.99 315.31 316.10 317.01
1960 316.43 316.97 317.58 319.03 320.03 319.59 318.18 315.90 314.17 313.83 315.00 316.19
1959 315.58 316.48 316.65 317.72 318.29 318.15 316.54 314.80 313.84 313.34 314.81 315.58
1958 315.69 317.45 317.50 317.22 315.86 314.93 313.21 312.45 313.33 314.67

units = parts per million (ppm)

Scripps Institution of Oceanography  |  University of California San Diego
Source Dataset  Scripps CO2 Program [Web + CSV Spreadsheet + Twitter)

Table produced by CO2.Earth

 

 

 


Global Monthly CO2 Data

 

 

Global Monthly CO2 Averages

November 2019

November 2019

 410.88 ppm

November 2018

 407.89 ppm

November 2017

405.48 ppm

Last Update: February 5, 2020
View Data:

NOAA global monthly data
NOAA global trends web

Atmospheric CO2
monthly mean concentrations  |  ppm = parts per million

NOAA-ESRL-GMD CCGG global cooperative air sampling network

NOAA-ESRL’s Global Monitoring Division (GMD) operates the largest and most comprehensive global network of air sampling sites.  In the 1970s, the GMD started air sampling programs at Mauna Loa and other sites around the world.  GMD network coordination activities are based in Boulder, Colorado, USA.  

NOAA publishes a monthly global average based on CO2 measurements by its distributed network of air sampling sites.  Global averages have usually been posted a month after Mauna Loa averages are posted.  For example, the Mauna Loa average for January has often been published in the first half of February, and the global average for January has often been published in the first half of March.

Despite seasonal variations at different latitudes, readings from observatories around the world show the same rising CO2 trend from one year to the next.   In the book, CO2 Rising, Tyler Volk (2008) writes, "Data from Alaska and Samoa fit right in with the trend from Mauna Loa and the South Pole, where monitoring was begun nearly 20 years earlier.  We are witnessing a global phenomenon.  CO2 is rising everywhere, and at about the same rate" (pp. 40 -41).

 

More Info

 

NOAA-ESRL GMD  Global CO2

NOAA-ESRL GMD  NOAA-ESRL calculation of global averages

NOAA-ESRL GMD  Cooperative Air Sampling Network

SkS  CO2 Comparison Chart | Mauna Loa vs. Global Average

SkS   CO2 Comparison Chart | Mauna Loa, Alaska, Samoa, South Pole

 

Reference

 

Volk, T. (2008). CO₂ rising: The world's greatest environmental challenge (2010 paperback ed.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

 


Charts for Mauna Loa CO2

 

Below are two NOAA charts and three Scripps charts.   Each chart shows changes in CO2 concentrations at different time scales--from hourly to seasonally.  These charts all use averages of readings at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii that started in March 1958.

 

NOAA Recent Monthly CO2 Averages

Recent Monthly CO2Source Graphic  NOAA-ESRL [webpng + pdf]

 


 

NOAA Monthly CO2 Averages
Scripps Data 1958 - 1974  |  NOAA Data  1974 - Present  

NOAA Monthly CO2Source Graphic  NOAA-ESRL [web + .png + .pdf]

 


 

Scripps Monthly CO2 Averages
March 1958 - Present Scripps Monthly CO2 Source Graphic  Scripps CO2 Program [web + .png + .pdf

 

 


 

Scripps Hourly, Daily & Weekly CO2 Averages for the Past Month

Scripps Keeling Curve CO2 for the Past Month Source Graphic  Scripps Keeling Curve [web + .png]

 

 


 

 

Scripps Daily & Weekly CO2 Averages for the Past 6 Months Scripps Keeling Curve CO2 for 6 Months

 Source Graphic:  Scripps Keeling Curve [web + .png]

 

 


More Scripps Graphics

Scripps CO2 Program   Mauna Loa Graphics Gallery

Scripps Keeling Curve Website   1 Week    1 Month    1 Year    2 Years    Since 1958    Since 1700    800,000 Years

 

 


 

KC Monthly Web Widget

 

CO2.earth features this web widget on its home page with html code (available in 9 sizes) from show.earth.

 

Atmospheric CO2

 

 


*** More Data

 

Mauna Loa CO2

 

CO2.Earth  Daily CO2 Data

CO2.Earth  Weekly CO2 Data

CO2.Earth  Yearly CO2 Data

CO2.Earth  CO2 Trend

 

About the Data

 

NOAA  How scientists measure background CO2 levels on Mauna Loa

 

Monthly Data at Other Stations

 

CSIRO  Monthly GHG Data at Cape Grim, Tasmania

NOAA  Monthly CO2 data (in situ) at the South Pole Observatory, Antarctica

 

Data Updates

 

Is data reposted incorrectly? 

 

CO2.Earth  Nudge Us

 

 

Annual CO2 Data

  Annual CO2

Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations
Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) & Global

NOAA-ESRL
MLO

SCRIPPS UCSD
MLO (*)

Year

NOAA-ESRL
Global

411.44 ppm

411.49 ppm 2019 TBD

408.52 ppm

408.59 ppm

2018

407.38 ppm

406.55 ppm

406.59 ppm

2017

405.00 ppm

404.24 ppm

404.28 ppm

2016

402.85 ppm

Jan. 7, 2020
Jan. 2, 2020
latest update
Jan. 7, 2020
.txt + web
.csv + web (*)
source datasets
.txt + web

annual mean concentrations  |  ppm = parts per million

* Annual values for Scripps are calculated by CO2.Earth as a
12-month average of Scripps monthly mean concentrations.

 

The direction of atmospheric CO2 has been constant for decades.  Year after year since 1958 when Charles David Keeling started measurements at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii, earth's background CO2 level has only gone up.   Overall, the increases have been accelerating.

The Mauna Loa Observatory is home to two independent CO2 monitoring programs:

  • April 1974 - Present  Global Monitoring Division | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL)
  • 1958 - Present  Scripps CO2 Program | Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) at the University of California San Diego (UCSD)

NOAA operates the Mauna Loa facility.

 

Citing the Current Global Average

 

Two common ways exist for citing current global average concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere.  One uses the annual average concentration measured at one location, the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO).  The other uses an annual 'spatial' average of globally-averaged marine surface data from the NOAA-ESRL cooperative air sampling network.  The MLO average is considered a good approximation although the data above shows that it is typically about 1.4 ppm aove the spaial average. (Citing global averages is discussed by T.J. Blasing at footnote 7 of the CDIAC update for recent GHG concentrations.)

 

 


About the Data

 

NOAA  How scientists measure background CO2 levels on Mauna Loa

CO2.Earth  Monitoring CO2

 

 


More Data

 

CO2.Earth  Daily CO2 Data

CO2.Earth  Weekly CO2 Data

CO2.Earth  Monthly CO2 Data

CO2.Earth  Monitoring CO2

CO2.Earth  CO2 Trend

 

 


Feedback

 

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